1. To understand the different types of acute aortic syndrome.
2. To learn about imaging findings and management options.
Computed tomography (CT) angiography represents the major imaging modality for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes. This lecture will review the various underlying diseases of the acute aortic syndrome, demonstrate typical imaging features enabling the diagnosis and discuss management options depending on the type, extent, and location of the disease. Clinical examples will be shown in this presentation.
1. To identify the signs of trauma.
2. To provide an indication of their clinical significance.
Abdominal traumas can be classified into two categories: penetrating and blunt traumas. Abdominal injuries are more often observed in the setting of polytrauma: in fact, they are present in about 10% of patients admitted to level 1 trauma. However, only 11% of patients with abdominal trauma require laparotomy when a correct imaging-guide approach is performed. In fact, because the management of trauma patients mainly depends on the mechanism and severity of the trauma, it is crucial to choose the correct imaging modality and/or technique when evaluating a trauma patient on the basis of these two parameters. For example, an ultrasound examination, possibily integrated by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, may be adequate to image a minor blunt abdominal trauma. This modality, however, is not appropriate when evaluating a severe blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma or even a polytrauma patient with a minor mechanism of injury. Multidetector CT is actually the modality of choice for evaluating severe trauma patients, accompanied by an appropriate CT protocol to image these patients so as to avoid missed injuries and to correctly detect abdominal solid organ injuries, mesenteric and intestinal injuries and abdominal vascular traumatic lesions. Moreover, due to the fact that during the past decades there has been a major change from operative to increasingly conservative management of abdominal traumatic injuries, even in patients with higher grades of injuries or those with older age, imaging features together with hemodynamic considerations play an essential role in the treatment choice: surgery, conservative management, endovascular treatment.