1. To learn about the most common causes for image-guided intervention in children.
2. To understand how the practical and technical approach to intervention in a child differs from that in adults.
3. To appreciate tips, tricks and pitfalls in paediatric intervention procedures.
1. To learn about the classification of paediatric vascular malformations.
2. To understand the diagnostic work-up and the indications for percutaneous treatment of paediatric vascular malformations.
3. To appreciate the treatment options for different vascular malformations.
Diagnosis and treatment of vascular malformations in children is a combination of different diagnostic tools adapted to the given clinical setting. It always has to be an interdisciplinary team approach mostly based in dedicated centres to first find the correct diagnosis and then decide whether or not treatment is necessary. From the clinical background, most vascular malformations don’t need invasive treatment because they do not cause any symptoms. However, the clinical decision has to be based on a reliable diagnosis, and different imaging pathways have to be considered. Imaging is predominantly performed by Ultrasound and MRI. Valuable information is added by clinical examination and history as well as sometimes histopathologic specimens. Different MRI examination approaches exist that help to find the correct diagnosis in the end. In imaging, it is important to distinguish between high-flow lesions e.g. arteriovenous malformations (AVM) or low-flow lesions e.g. venous malformations. Ultrasound and MRI can help to look beyond the focal vascular malformation because other body-regions might be affected as well. The correct diagnostic workup will help to define the right clinical pathway in a multidisciplinary team discussion. The treatment decision should then include non-interventional procedures such as physiotherapy or compression hosiery as well as interventional procedures such as sclerotherapy, embolization and surgery. It is essential to talk to and support the children and their parents, so they understand the different pathways and options. When all this comes together, they can decide well-informed leading to a hopefully satisfied patient in the end.
1. To learn how to diagnose, and how to treat, osteoid osteomas.
2. To understand the techniques for percutaneous treatment of osteoid osteoma: preparations, procedure and follow-up.
3. To appreciate advantages and potential complications in percutaneous treatment of osteoid osteoma in children.