1. To understand the requirements for building a 3D printing lab.
2. To learn the assessment of the impact of 3D printed models for cardiovascular interventions.
3. To understand the value of customising surgical tools and prostheses and to inform the patient.
4. To become familiar with the management changes due to centralised 3D printing.
3D printing has been in use for medical applications since more than 20 years but is currently under strong technological development as the use of machine types for 3D printing labs has become more feasible with improvements in spatial resolution. Radiologists have to define the role of biomedical imaging within this interdisciplinary field, in which advances are mainly driven by surgeons and medical physicists. Current clinical applications of 3D printing are mainly in cardiovascular interventions, maxillofacial, orthopaedic and trauma surgery as well as in health economy. Major goals are the customising surgical devices, personalised surgical training with a focus on complex anatomic situations, and patient empowerment by explaining the procedures with a 3D print. Non-clinical applications are in classic anatomy and related disciplines for educational purposes. With 3D printing, the radiological workflow is changing dramatically, as it is moving from the traditional stepwise referral-report approach to a totally different device-oriented process. There are trends to centralise 3D printing which, on the other hand, have a high potential for personalising the radiological service. As such, 3D printing should be regarded as a holistic approach and substantially influences the personalisation of imaging diagnostics with a prognostic, a preventive and a participatory impact.
1. To learn the principles of 3D printing in terms of printer technology, methods, properties of printed material and other requirements when planning a 3D lab.
2. To appreciate and specify the role of radiologists in image planning during the 3D printing process.
3. To understand the correlation of spatial resolution and other image quality parameters among 3D printing, 3D and 2D visualisation.
As 3D printing and its role in medicine receive greater attention, dedicated labs with this focus become more and more common. When planning such a 3D lab an understanding of the variety of different available principles, technologies, methods, and printed material properties is necessary. This technological understanding is complemented by the appreciation of the central role clinical imaging plays. In particular how image planning, resolution and overall image quality impact the whole process of 3D printing. Finally, creating a 3D printing lab takes on the challenges of combining and coordinating knowledge from different technical and clinical disciplines while at the same time guaranteeing strict adherence to medical regulations. In this talk, all these key aspects for the establishment of a 3D printing lab will be discussed drawing upon state-of-the-art knowledge, best practices and examples at our Institution.
1. To learn the potential applications for aortic and cardiac diseases to facilitate decision making.
2. To appreciate the impact of 3D models for interventional treatment planning.
3. To understand the value of 3D models for diagnosis and treatment in situations with complex anatomy.
How to print your first vascular model? I will share personal experience into all steps of the printing process, from patient to model, using aortic aneurysms as cases. The various steps from image acquisition, DICOM editing, segmentation, the creation of a printable mesh or STL file, through to the final print are discussed. What is the current state of the art? A literature review and multi-source update into cardiovascular applications are offered. From bench to beside! Personal insights are offered on the potential value and limitations of embedding 3D printing into a hospital practice from different perspectives - that of a clinician, but also from business and entrepreneurial perspectives.
1. To learn the standardised and the emerging surgical applications of 3D printing and their dependency on the anatomic complexity.
2. To appreciate the high potential in customizing and shortening the workflow of planning, pre-contouring and conducting surgery.
3. To understand the potential of 3D printing as an extension of diagnostic imaging with view on patient outcomes.
3D Printing is becoming an increasingly relevant part of the surgical workflow. It has the potential to improve patient care, shorten operating time and reduce costs in surgical interventions. The lecture will introduce three main concepts with which 3D printing can help the surgeon: anatomical representation, virtual surgery and customised training models. While anatomical models will help surgeons to understand complex anatomy before surgery and allow to pre-contour plates, virtual surgery serves as a template to create patient-specific jigs and guides as well as patient-specific implants. 3D prints can also be used for training purposes allowing residents to become more proficient in common procedures while helping experienced surgeons to prepare for difficult cases. Specific examples will be shown for each concept illustrating how 3D printing can be a radiologic extension to improve patient outcome.
1. To learn the strategies behind a centralisation of 3D printing.
2. To appreciate the potential added value of sharing biomedical print files and other data related to 3D printing.
3. To understand the workflow changes and the potential of quality control and education in treatment planning with 3D printing support.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing continues to attract considerable attention in the medical community, fuelled by improvements in technology and an associated reduction in costs. However, capital investment for high-end 3D printers (which provide the accuracy required for complex anatomical shapes), combined with the annual maintenance and software licensing fees remain prohibitive for many hospitals, particularly those within the National Health Service (NHS). Housing 3D printing services within the hospital afford a number of advantages, including close communication during image preparation to ensure that the resultant 3D model meets the expectations of the requesting clinician. Whilst individual clinical departments have strived to acquire their own 3D printers. This is not the most cost-effective solution due to replication of costs, including the time commitment for segmentation and post-processing of 3D models. In an attempt to address these issues, we established a fully centralised 3D printing facility employing a full-time dedicated 3D technician. The interdisciplinary approach of centralisation results in a cross-pollination of ideas and provides a centre point of expertise benefitting all specialities across the hospital and wider community. However, centralisation is not without its challenges. The ever-tightening financial constraints of the NHS requires ongoing adaptation and innovation to ensure long-term sustainability.